"What the research does suggest, however, is that holding positive ideas (as important a step as this is) is not sufficient by itself to change the world. We still need direct communication between individuals, we need to translate our ideas into action, and we need to recognize the freedom of choice of those who choose alternatives different from our own." (Elaine Myers The Hundredth Monkey Revisited)

Short chronology of the crisis:

September to December: Ahead of the Dec. 27 presidential election, clashes in western Kenya kill hundreds of people, although campaigning was less violent than in the past. Politicians are accused of stoking ethnic tensions, and several diplomats express concern that a narrow victory on either side could lead to rioting.

Dec 27 - Voters elect a new president and parliament. Millions turn out in relatively peaceful balloting. Most opinion polls put opposition leader Raila Odinga of the Orange Democratic Movement in the lead.

Dec 28 - ODM maintains its lead throughout the whole day of counting, while first reports speak of vote rigging. Early results indicate Odinga is likely to unseat Kibaki.

Dec 29 - First unrests after election results especially from Rift Valley (e.g. Laikipia, Nakuru) and Eastern Province (e.g. Meru, Embu) are obviously withheld. Thousands enraged over delays in announcing election results burn down homes and attack political rivals with sticks and machetes.

Dec 30 - Short after the Electoral Commission of Kenya declares Kibaki winner of the presidential election, he is hurriedly sworn in for a second and final five-year term.The opposition ODM wins the biggest number of seats in the parliamentary election and wins in 6 of 8 provinces. First riots erupt as it becomes clear that the election results were rigged and rage especially in slums. The government suspends live TV coverage.

Dec 31 - The government floods the streets with security forces and maintains a ban on live TV broadcasts after riots convulse the nation. Protesting opposition, many from Raila's Luo tribe, beaten back in Nairobi, many shot and killed by police.

Jan 01 - Kenya Government stands accused of mass-killings by police. A mob in western Kenya retailiates and torches a church, sheltering hundreds of people fleeing the violence, and killing up to 50 people _ including children, mainly from Kibaki's Kikuyu tribe.

Jan 02 - ODM accuses Kibaki's and the government accuses Odinga's backers of "ethnic cleansing" as the death toll from confined protest marches and tribal violence rises.

Jan 03 - Attorney General Amos Wako calls for an independent investigation into the election. South Africa's Nobel Peace Prize laureate Archbishop Desmond Tutu begins to try to mediate. Police use tear gas, water cannons and batons to prevent a protest by thousands in the capital of Nairobi.

Jan 04 - Kibaki says he will accept a re-run of the disputed election if a court orders it. The opposition demands a new election. The United Nations says the unrest has uprooted 250,000 people, and that about 100,000 displaced people in the Northern Rift Valley could face starvation. The International Red Cross makes an urgent appeal for aid.

Jan 05 - Kibaki says he is ready to form a government of national unity to end the turmoil and to help resolve the dispute, but the opposition rejects the offer, since it would be conditional that Kibaki remains President with sole power.

Jan 06 - Opposition calls for credible international mediator, while British envoy urges AU to step in.

Jan 07 - Odinga calls off planned protests after meeting U.S. envoy Jendayi Frazer, saying the mediation process is about to begin.

Jan 08 - Kibaki announces 17 ministers for his new cabinet and Musyoka Kalonzo as Vice-President. Protesters respond by building and burning barricades in Odinga's western stronghold, Kisumu. African Union Chairman and Ghanaian President John Kufuor arrive in Nairobi to mediate.

Jan 09 - Hospital are overwhelmed by injured and dying protesters.

Jan 10 - ODM declares Kibaki's cabinet illegal. Kufuor leaves Kenya saying both sides have agreed to work together with an African panel headed by former U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan. But Kibaki and Odinga, amid recriminations, have neither met nor agreed how to end the crisis.

Jan 11 - The ODM calls for international sanctions against Kibaki, while ECK chairman disowns and refutes given poll results. Talks collaps and Kuofur leaves Kenya

Jan 12 - ODM calls for three days of mass-action. Alarm over alledged presence of Ugandan troops in Kenya.

Jan 13 - Kenya Government rejects outside help. US and EU warn Kenya of sanctions if peace is not established.

Jan 14 - Violence continues and the death toll in unrest rises to 612, according to aid agencies.

Jan 15 - Parliament is convened and the opposition gets a boost by winning all the posts of speaker and deputy speaker of the assembly.

Jan 16 - Police fight hundreds of protesters in trouble spots across the country, killing three, as the opposition defies a ban on rallies.

Jan 17 - In Nairobi and the western towns of Kisumu and Eldoret, police fire teargas and bullets during rallies called by the opposition but banned by police. The opposition accuse police of killing seven people.

Jan 18 - At least 13 people are killed when police open fire in a Nairobi slum and ethnic groups clash during protests.

Jan 19 - The opposition says it will resume protests next week, having completed 3 days of demonstrations in which at least 23 died. Government's Mr. Kibaki met a high level European Union delegation and said he is willing to meet ODM leader, Mr Raila Odinga, who calls for fresh mass action and announces that coming protests would also include economic sabotage of companies whose directors are perceived to be close allies of President Kibaki. EAC declares it is unable to intervene.

Jan 20 - More killed as rivals differ over peace talks. Uganda ask for help to feed Kenyan refugees.A kilometre-long section of rails is uprooted in Kibera from the Kenya-Uganda railway. Hundreds of residents invade tea factory demanding that they be hired for tea picking. Ethnic fighting escalates in Rift Valley.

Jan 21 - Kenyan marathon runner Wesley Ngetich killed by a poisoned arrow. British envoy summoned by angry Kenya Government, which has not been recognized by UK.

Jan 22 - Ex-UN chief Kofi Annan arrives in Kenya to attempt mediation. Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni flies into Nairobi to try to mediate but receives a hostile reception. Kenyan police fires teargas to disperse supporters of President Mwai Kibaki. Nine people hacked or burned to death in new violence linked to Kenya's political crisis. Funeral service along Ngong Road stormed by police, which causes hourlong battles and destruction also of government buildings.

Jan 23 - ODM files a complaint with the International Criminal Court in The Hague against President Kibaki and several key Government officials.The Media Council of Kenya is asking the Minister for Information and Communication to withdraw the suspension on live broadcasts with immediate effect. Kenya opposition calls off protests at Annan's request.

Jan 24 - Kibaki and Odinga meet for a first time after election in a breakthrough brokered by Annan, while Kenyan death toll now tops 700 and half a township in Nakuru is razed by arsonists.

Jan 25 - Annan denounces "gross and systematic" human rights abuses in Kenya after continuing post-election violence. Nakuru violence erupts.The Secretary of the African Union Affairs and the General People's Committee for Foreign Liaison and International Cooperation meet for the second time over Kenya crisis.

Jan 26 - Annan calls for an investigation of human rights abuses, while while police fires from helicopters at people in Nakuru.

Jan 27 - Annan meets Odinga as ethnic clashes continue. Negotiators led by Annan tell the rival camps of Kibaki, and Odinga to select four officials each and for further talks in the next 24 hours. At least 10 people are burnt alive and three others are stoned to death as violence spreads to Naivasha Town. Violence paralyses Western Kenya towns as political crisis deepens. Two Germans murdered at Kenya Coast.

Jan 28 - At least 64 people are killed in last four days of ethnic fighting in the Rift Valley towns of Nakuru and Naivasha pushing up the death toll up to around 800 people. Opposition legislator Melitus Were is shot dead outside his home in Nairobi, triggering more rioting and ethnic killings, especially in Western Kenya.

Jan 29 - Mediator Kofi Annan outlines the terms of reference and agenda for the peace talks, which stop after an MP is shot dead. Legislator Melitus Were is gunned down outside his home in Nairobi, triggering more rioting and ethnic killings. U.N. special adviser on preventing genocide warns politicians and demands a stop to post-election violence in Kenya. Two photojournalists shot by police in Kibera. Government and opposition negotiators begin talks.

Jan 30 - Kenya police gets renewed 'shoot to kill' order after talks are postponed and media are silenced. Ogiek People come under attack in Rift Valley. Annan presents agenda for mediation as roadmap to peace.

Jan 31 - Kibaki - giving renewed 'shoot-to-kill order' to quell unrest - flies out to AU summit and meets also UN Secretary General in Addis. Donors suspend key-funding. Crisis talks suspended after second legislator is killed by a policeman, which sparks fresh clashes.

Feb 01 - Kagame calls for military intervention in Kenya, while Gadaffi says at AU summit that the Kenyan crisis could have been dealt with much more quickly. Violence doesn't stop despite peace talks.

Feb 02 - Kenya death toll up to 1000 despite agreement and fresh unrest mars peace deal. Kenya's opposition leader Raila Odinga accuses President Mwai Kibaki of undermining talks to end a political crisis by insisting that a court in Kenya could resolve the dispute over his Dec. 27 re-election. Fighting rages on in Western Kenya.

Feb 03 - Raila Odinga calls for AU peacekeepers while Amnesty International demands protection of human rights activists. Thousand of villagers flee from police crackdown in Western Kenya, while the SLDF militia continues their ethnic atrocities in the Mt. Elgon areas.

Feb 04 - Peace talks resume and Annan is urged to speed up his mediation process. Kibaki refuses Ramaphosa as mediator, sparking international anger about Kenya Government. Kenyan government lifts monthlong ban on live broadcasts, but continues to caution journalists. PNU And ODM agree on formation of a Truth Commission, while Annan declares that issues concerning the election results are too hot to handle for him. SLDF militia launches killing spree against Ogiek.

Feb 05 - Eight experts brought by the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (KNCHR) begin to gather evidence on the post-election violence. Red Cross says the death toll from Kenya's bloodletting has risen to at least 1,000, while number of Kenyan refugees in Uganda rises to 12,000. Vice-President Kalonzo Musyoka and HR activist Kiai meet with UK government in London during separate talks. US Peace Corps pulls out all staff and flees from Kenya.

Feb 06 - Spying devices found in Kofi Annan's hotel suite. Former UK ambassodor to Kenya Sir Edward Clay declared Persona Non Grata by Kenya Government. Mission sent by UN High Commissioner for Human Right starts working in Kenya. Dumping ground of killed people discovered in Ngonde forest. Imminent opposition demonstrations called off.

Feb 07 - Ten high profile PNU and ODM personalities and their families are banned from traveling to the United States over alleged links to the post-poll violence, while Kenya National Commission on Human Rights chairman Kiai urgea the US to freeze military aid to Kenya until an interim government is formed. Outlawed Mungiki militia launches further cleansing operations in Rift Valley and are conscripting youth despite heavy military patrols and night curfew. Kenya government accused of providing automatic firearms to PNU militias, which are purchased from China.

Feb 08 - Kofi Annan says in the morning, he is not ready yet to admit defeat for his National Dialog and Reconciliation Mission seconded by a panel of eminent African personalities. United Nations relief aid coordinator John Holmes starts 3 day mission. Ban on public rallies lifted. ODM negotiator William Ruto declares that his party is ready for power sharing in joint government. Annan declares that no agreement has been reached yet.

Feb 09 - ODM leader, Mr Raila Odinga, calls again for a resolution to the political crisis and ODM leaders say they will seek their supporters' consent before striking any deal in the Kofi Annan led mediation talks. Kenya's opposition leaders, gathering at the funeral of a murdered MP, demand again that president Kibaki resigns and new elections be held, dropping a conciliatory stance that had brought hope for a political settlement to end weeks of postelection violence,

Feb 10 - Vice-President Kalonzo Musyoka says the government was committed to the ongoing dialogue, but warns against rushing into a power-sharing agreement. German foreign minister pledges support in Kenya mediation and sends envoy to support Annan team.

Feb 11 - Kenya Government announces that it will prosecute the inciters and the culprits of the violence, launces (nearly-)free secondary education and promises house rebuilding to IDPs, whose homes had been destroyed. Mediation talks circle around power-sharing, but no agreement achieved. Kofi Annan demands 48-72 h news blackout and announces that the mediation talks will be translocated to a secret location.

Feb 12 - The mediation team brief the newly elected Kenyan Parliament in a special session, and declares that both feuding sides had agreed to a special commission which will have to investigate over many coming months all issues concerning the December 27 election. A former Assistant Commissioner of Police is arrested on incitement to violence charges.

Feb 13 - UK, who refuses to recognize Kibaki as President, and Switzerland issue renewed warnings against saboteurs of the Annan-led mediation talks. Kenya Government declares it would take "remedial measures" against the British high commissioner Adam Wood over his remarks. Chief mediator Kofi Annan said his statement on a grand coalition to resolve Kenya`s election crisis was only a proposal for further discussion. Local Government Minister Uhuru Kenyatta supports the formation of a grand coalition government to restore unity among Kenyans. One Ogiek leader receives a death-treath by phone, while another one, who is persecuted, goes into hiding and seeks international protection.

Feb 14 - Kenya's feuding parties have agreed to rewrite the constitution within a year. Government orders that unclaimed bodies of post-election violence victims should not be buried in mass graves. While Germany proposes a grand coalition as the best answer to Kenya's political crisis, the European Union (EU) has warned that it could sever trade and bilateral links with Kenya if political leaders do not move fast to resolve the political crisis. Britain is embroiled in a diplomatic row with Kenya after the British high commissioner said President Mwai Kibaki's government did not "represent the democratic will of the Kenyan people".

Feb 15 - Kenya's rival parties agree to a swathe of reforms meant to solve the underlying causes of the crisis, but fail to come to a political settlement. Kofi Annan, states that a new government bringing together PNU and parties in its coalition and the Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) is necessary to push through legal, constitutional and other reforms necessary to heal the country. Government comes under fire over its repatriation of the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) to their rural homes. No political settlement to Kenya crisis yet, Annan says. He highlights that one has agreed to come to an agreement, but no tangible results were presented, except for:

  • The creation of an Independent Review Committee.
  • This Committee would be mandated to investigate all aspects of the 2007 Presidential Election and make findings and recommendations to improve the electoral process.
  • The Committee will be a non-judicial body made up of Kenyan and non-Kenyan recognised electoral experts of the highest professional standing and personal integrity.
  • The Committee will submit its report within three-six months and it should be published within 14 days of submission. It should start its work not later than 15 March, 2008.
  • The findings of the Independent Review Committee must be factored into the comprehensive electoral reforms that are envisaged.

Annan announces that, though he would stay on as long as it takes, he will bring in a former Nigerian minister and UN official, Ambassador Oluyemi Adeniji, as co-mediator during times of Annan's absence.

Feb 16 - Riot police was again deployed in Kenya's capital as anti-corruption protesters took part in a banned demonstration. In Meru demonstrators burn a British flag and demand from the Kenya Government not to give in. The Orange Democratic Movement (ODM) has demands that a new team be appointed at the Electoral Commission of Kenya before the pending by-elections are held. Thousands turn out to bury a murdered opposition lawmaker. Ten more people reported killed in Kabolet / North-Rift during fights between alleged cattle-raiders, local people and police. Amnesty International calls for investigations into human rights abuses and killings perpetrated in the post-election violence in Kenya. Panic gripped Kakamega when hostile youths confronted police over the arrival of displaced families returning to their rural homes.U.S. President George W. Bush, on a visit to Africa, throws his weight behind a power sharing deal for Kenya.

Feb 17 - The Kenyan government issues a veiled warning to the United States not to put "a gun to anybody's head" and rejects US pressure over power-sharing deal. Moses Wetangula, the Foreign Affairs minister, states: "We will not be led, guided or given conditions by foreign States on how to reach a solution to solve the political impasse in Kenya." Two elderly men are hacked to death by a group of raiders who later set eight houses on fire in Kuresoi, Molo District.Thirty-seven Mungiki suspects are arrested while taking an oath in Nairobi’s Kayole estate. More than 200 others who had taken the oath escaped.

Feb 18 - US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice meets with both the country's political rivals and proposes real power sharing. She warns that it will not be business as usual in Kenya, unless a coalition government is in place and tells Kenya's feuding parties to hurry up. Also former MP, Prof Wangari Maathai, urges the international community to put more pressure on both sides, to speed up the search for a political settlement.

Feb 19 - Kenya's political rivals resume talks to end the country's bloody political crisis. Kenya Government announces, that it will not give in to dictated power-sharing demands and that all agreements must follow the present constitutional framework. The Government Parliamentary Group (GPG) rules out the creation of prime minister’s position as the key to unlocking the political impasse. The MPs from PNU and its affiliates, including ODM-K say their rivals in ODM should be fitted in Government without sharing power with President Kibaki. US president George Bush asks world leaders to pay attention to early genocide warning signs to avoid a Rwanda-like situation happening in Kenya. EU issues another stern warning, saying it would no longer be business as usual, if the mediation tals fail. Police arrest 41 suspected fighters and recover a cache of weapons at the troubled Borabu-Sotik border. Kenya Airways announces that they have suspended all flights to Paris. Overnight heavily armed police units raid houses in Mathare slum.

Feb 20 - Ongoing talks hit a stalemate over disagreement about power sharing. Kenya's opposition threatens mass protests within a week, if the government fails to start work on changing the constitution to pave the way for any type of power-sharing government and/or if negotiations led by Kofi Annan fail to resolve the post-election crisis within a week. Kenya Government calls this blackmail. 160 NGOs state that power sharing would not be a panacea to the political impasse, and call on Parliament to amend the Constitution. The media fraternity reacts sharply to threats by the Government to disband the Media Council of Kenya. Nobel Peace laureate Wangari Maathai says she has received death threats since urging tribal elders to help stop ethnic killings. A prominent Uasin Gishu farmer, businessman and ODM politician, Mr Jackson Kibor, was arrested by police and was later flown to Nakuru, where he is held in CID cells. In a second night of raids, causing chaos and strong protest from the population, police arrests 80 people, who allegedly had occupied abandoned houses in Korogosho area of Mathare slums.

Feb 21 - The government says it has agreed in principle to creating a prime minister's post demanded by the opposition. Kenya’s religious leaders call for fresh polls. African Union Commission chief Jean Ping arrives for a two-day visit to Kenya for talks with chief mediator Kofi Annan. 14 people killed when Samburu and Pokot tribesmen clashed over cattle-raid in Laikipia West District. ODM asks President Kibaki to re-open Parliament next week so that MPs can address the key issue of growing insecurity in the country.

Feb 22 - The Commonwealth and African Union (AU) continue to pile pressure on PNU and ODM to reach an agreement.Kenya's opposition leader, after the PNU team had not shown up for talks, unexpectedly leaves the country on this very day for which government negotiators and their rivals had promised to sign a power-sharing deal. Kenyan religious leaders of Christian, Muslim and Hindu faith have called for a fresh general election as the only way out of the current political crisis. A Lang’ata parliamentary loser in last year’s General Election has gone to court seeking temporary orders to restrain the Annan team from adopting any resolution arising from the talks. Negotiators broke off talks on Kenya's post-election crisis, saying they would hold consultations over the weekend and resume on Monday. ODM has called for mass civil disobedience from Wednesday next week if the Annan-led talks fail to achieve tangible results. Fires destroy habitat in Nakuru National Park, in Mau Forest and Laikipia rangelands.

Feb 23 - German Ambassador to Kenya calls on leaders to stop commenting on the Annan led mediation process, while Kenyans are getting impatient, since both feuding sides try to share power without relinquishing authority - a deal that has remained elusive despite repeated promises of an imminent agreement. The two sides hold internal consultations. ODM leader, Mr Raila Odinga, has taken exception to reports alleging that he went to Nigeria to ask President Umaru Yar’Adua to join the efforts to find a political settlement to the crisis in Kenya. He said the report was "very malicious and aimed at creating disharmony in the mediation talks." Police training of the first group of 5000 recruits from National Youth Service (NYS) begins. More Kenyans flee as refugees into Uganda.

Feb 24 - Men abducted by ‘police officers’ feared executed. Former National Assembly Speaker, Mr Francis ole Kaparo, blames the Kibaki presidency for post-election turmoil. Kaparo, who is known to back militant ops of his Maa speaking ethnic groups, also accused President Kibaki and ODM leader, Mr Raila Odinga, of perpetuating personal and ethnic interests. The Government and ODM differ over the number of concessions made so far in the talks aimed at ending the post-election political crisis. Leaders from both sides accuse each other of failing to cede the necessary ground to pave the way for a coalition between PNU and ODM. More than 600 lawyers urge chief mediator Kofi Annan, to wind up the talks. PNU legislators from PNU strongholds call on foreign envoys to stop dictating terms to Kenyans and threaten that they also would call their supporters to counter any mass action, if ODM makes good its threat.

Feb 25 - PNU and Kenya Government revoke all earlier committments and the negotiations between the two sides of the mediation team reach a standstill. Annan meets Raila and Kibaki over this deadlock and is threatening to leave if stalling continues. Kenya's opposition calls for mass rallies for Thursday after negotiators admitted failing to resolve outstanding issues on power sharing. Former parliament speaker and election loser ole Kaparo, who now tries to establish himself as Maasai tribal leader, hits out against the current executive presidency. More than 1,500 persons have been killed in tribal fighting, political rioting and everything that was associated with the elections," a senior police commander told the press on condition of anonymity. Mayorall polls end in havoc in many locations.

Feb 26 - After another attempt in the morning the talks come to a grinding halt. Annan refuses to continue the work with the negotition teams and states he had concluded that the teams were incapable of resolving the outstanding issues. Annan therefore asks Kibaki and Raila to come together in a last attempt to rescue the negotiations. Tanzania's president Kikwete in his capacity as AU president arrives in Kenya, while the Kenyan opposition prepares for Thursday's mass rallies. Amnesty International announces worldwide protest actions on Kenya for Wednesday. US Secretary Rice issues stern warning and announces a wide range of measures, if talks fail, which is immediately rebuffed by the government. 1,000 squatters invade a private ranch.

Feb 27 - Tanzanian President Jakaya Kikwete and opposiion leader Raila Odinga express hope that an agreement to end the current political crisis in the country can be reached. The European Union expresses concern over the negotiations and called for an effective power-sharing mechanism. The EU presidency also warned of dire consequences to individuals who obstructed the process. ODM councillor Geoffrey Odhiambo Majiwa sworn in as the new Nairobi mayor after a last-minute power-sharing deal with his PNU opponent John Njoroge Chege, thereby setting example. The Kenya Human Rights Commission (KHRC) states that the Attorney-General and the Commissioner of Police failed in their duties during and after the election and should be sacked. KHCR also stated that journalists and human rights defenders whose lives were threatened in the wake of the political violence are yet to get any protection from the Government - several HR defenders have fled the country, others are preparing to flee.

Feb 28 - Kenyan President Mwai Kibaki and opposition leader Raila Odinga after lenghty negotiations in the presence of AU boss and Tanzania President Jakaya Kikwete, former President Mkapa and Kofi Annan, sign an agreement on end the post-election crisis. Kibaki and Odinga agree to a power-sharing deal that includes a post of prime minister with substantial powers and responsibilities. Odinga is likely to occupy the post once parliament, which was agreed will re-assemble next Thursday passes the necessary constitutional changes. UK, US, EU and Germany welcome the deal within hours.

The Head of the African Union and Tanzania's  President  Jakaya  Kikwete (centre) managed to bring Raila  Odinga  (2nd  from left)  and  Mwai  Kibaki  (2nd  from right)  to  the  peace  and  powersharing agreement after the mediation teams of the Government and the ODM opposition under chief mediator Kofi Annan (left) had failed. Former Tanzanian President Mkapa (right) and Madame Machel were part of the panel.