In-Depth: About the Ogiek's struggle

The Ogiek people have a long history of resistance and struggle that has sustained their unity, identity and cultural distinction. Lately however, more than at any other time in their history, the very existence of the Ogiek as a distinct people has come under concerted threat: excision of large chunks of land from their forest homes and settlement of purported squatters thereon.

Background to the Ogiek case

The documents below provide more information about the Ogiek's history and struggle to maintain their heritage.

The Ogiek: The Guardians of the Forest                                                                                     By Ron Nomi - Seattle Preparatory High School - African Studies (December 13, 2004) Natural resources play an important role in the shaping of a culture or the survival of a society.  The relationship between man and his dependency on the environment has been a major cause of conflicts throughout the history of the world. The Mau Forest, an ecological haven in Kenya, is an example of such conflict. The Mau supports an abundance of diverse plant and animal life as well as one of the last indigenous forest dwellers, the Ogiek. The Ogiek, commonly referred to as the “caretakers” (Sang, 2002, p.3) of the forest, have existed for centuries in a peaceful (Obare & Wangwe, 1998) and symbiotic relationship with their homeland. This union instills a feeling of a true religion for these people.


Hunters-Gatherers                                                                                                                       The earliest ancestors of man may well have originated in what is now East Africa, as far back as five - perhaps even eight million years ago, taking into consideration the recent findings of the “Tugen Man” in Kenya. Most of this pre-history of mankind is contained in bones and stones, in middens (dunghills or rubbish heaps) and museums, in scholarly theories and painstaking excavations. The history of our ancestors continues to live in present peoples and cultures.

Hunter - gatherer time                                                                                                                 excerpt from LIVINGTIME: The Euro-American image of time is a machine, a factory assembly line chucking out identical hours, each unremarked and indistinguishable. Worse than that, it has insisted that its time is the time, and that indigenous peoples all over the world lack a ‘proper’ sense of time. It is not a lack. Rather they have cultivated a far more subtle and sensitive relationship to time and timing.

OGIEK LANGUAGE                                                                                                                      OKIEK [OKI] A few speakers out of an ethnic group of 20,000 in Kenya (1980 Heine and Möhlig). On East Mau Escarpment, Nakuru District, Rift Valley Province.

Ogiek language From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

NEW BOOK                                                                                                        Ogiek Land Cases and Historical Injustices - 1902 - 2004 -                                      "Your Resources, Our Relations"                                                                           - Author: Towett J. Kimaiyo
The Oasis
A Quarterly Newsletter of the Ogiek
    >>> Film Recommendations
A tale of Kalahari Desert Bushmen: “The Great Dance – the Story of !Nqate”

"The Great Dance” is a fascinating documentary that examines the unique relationship between Kalahari Desert Bushmen, or the San people, and the harsh landscape of the Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa....


Cosmic Africa is an extraordinary personal odyssey of African astronomer, Thebe Medupe, who journeys into this ancient continent’s astronomical past unveiling the deep connection humans have with the cosmos.

Invite Wanjiku to the Constitutional Talks                                                                                   Original by Rose K. Owino - One very important delegate was missing when delegates to Kenya’s National Constitutional Conference met for the first and the second sittings at the Bomas' talks. Her name is Wanjiku. The fictional woman created to represent the average Kenyan was never offerred an opportunity to take a seat in the hearts and minds of each delegate during deliberations. As tempers soured and emotions flared on issues as diverse as the creation of the post of prime minister, the kadhis courts and land - not to forget the demands for allowances - Wanjiku was relegated to spectator status while recommendations were made to a constitution created in her name.


Our Perspective on WHAT is ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE?                                                          To Aboriginal peoples, native to the land they live in since time immemorial, the term "environmental justice" goes beyond the issue of disproportionate toxic and nuclear contamination and health exposure of our elders, men, women, youth, children and our traditional food web. ... ff

Kenya - what is that ?                                                                                                                 Kenya got it's name from Mt. Kenya. But Mt. Kenya's original name is Kirinyaga in the predominat Kikuyu language spoken along the slopes. The Europeans, however, approached the mountain from the side where the Meru community lived and lives, who could not pronounce the name Kirinyaga properly. They said Kiinya, the result with the Whites was "Kenya".

Statement by the Ogiek People National Assembly (OPNA) on the Mau Forest Complex
Background on the Ogiek, facts about the Ogiek's case, and the Ogiek's demands.

IN THE HIGH COURT OF KENYA AT NAIROBI - CIVIL?CASE NO 238 OF 1999                                - THE GREEN SMOKESCREEN RULING OF KENYA -                                                                     The following copy of the judgement contains all text including the specific way to spell words as contained in the original text. - An injunction to halt the immediately applicable eviction order was granted for 14 days thereafter. Within that time - finally - the request for an application to appeal against this High Court judgement was considered to be heard as a matter of urgency and the possibility to appeal was granted together with a further halt of the eviction order until the Court of Appeal (the very last possibility in Kenya's legal system) will decide. The appeal has been filed despite several attempts from the political front to intimidate and frustrate the plaintiffs and their supporters.


Underlying Causes of Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Kenya                                       Kenya’s forests are rapidly declining due to pressure from increased population and other land uses. With B of the country being arid and semi-arid, there is a lot of strain on the rest of the land since the economy is natural resource based.

The Ogiek: The Ongoing Destruction of a Minority Tribe in Kenya
A 74-page in-depth report on the Ogiek, written by John Kamau of Rights Features Service.
                 See also: In Defence of a Minority Tribe Fighting for Survival                                                    A book review, African Church Information Service, 3 July 2001- Nairobi - Title: The Ogiek - The on-Going Destruction of a Minority Tribe in Kenya; Author: John Kamau - Publisher: Rights News and Features Service (Publishing Division), 2001 - Volume: 74 pp

Photographer accompanies Ogiek into Mau forest  Nov./Dec. 2004

  Copyright Geert van Kesteren

Please see all the slides:

See the Ogiek story  by Oneworld TV . ( full site link ! )

The Okiek of Kenya (PDF)                                                                                                           N.B.: In earlier literature you will find different ways to write the name of the Ogiek (e.g. Okiek), but this question has been resolved by the Ogiek themselves.

Ogiek never had a problem with elephants or other wildlife                                                      While the Ogiek never had a problem with elephants or other wildlife species, but since times immemoriable were the guardians of the magnificent forest biodiversity of the Mau and Elgon forests, the invading agriculturalists not only cut the forests, but also soon encountered problems with the elephants.

GE Forest Trees – The Ultimate Threat                                                                                       Genetically modified (GM) forest trees do not attract the same immediate health concerns as GM food crops. But in reality, they pose an even greater threat than GM crops because they impact directly on natural forests that are essential for the survival of our planet.

Ethnoforestry                                                                                                                               The effectiveness of traditional forest management practices has often been overlooked by the scientific community. This edition of The Overstory by special guest author Deep Narayan Pandey of the Indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal, India introduces the importance and application of ethnoforestry.

Who is indigenous in Africa?                                                                                                      Indigenous Africans are mostly from hunting and gathering societies or from nomadic herding peoples (cattle, sheep and camel herders). Still today Africa has the largest number of peoples living as hunter-gatherers or herders.

Environmental Colonialism: “Saving” Africa from Africans                                                        Under the banner of saving the African environment, Africans in the last half century have been subjected to colonialism from an overlooked source: the conservation movement. Local populations have been displaced and impoverished in order to create national parks and to serve other conservation objectives, in large part because Western conservationists misunderstand African wildlife management practices and problems.

Ogiek and Sengwer officially recognized as indigenous peoples of Kenya                          (15. March 2007) The Government of Kenya has entered into a loan agreement with the World Bank and therein recognizes that the Sengwer and the Ogiek are Indigenous Peoples. With this document the Kenya Government actually undertakes to rehabilitate previously displaced forest communities. This is a binding agreement that will be useful if the two communities use it to pressure the Government to restore land rights. Please find the whole report below ...

Our World is NOT for SALE                                                                                                         GATS, the General Agreement on Trade in Services is an international deal to open up economies to competition from foreign firms. It was signed in 1994 by the members of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the predecessor to the World Trade Organisation.

Kenya's Castaways: The Ogiek and National Development Processes                                       The Ogiek, who number around 20,000, are arguably the largest hunter-gatherer community in Kenya. They have identified themselves as an indigenous people, as defined in Article 1(b) of International Labour Organization Convention No. 169,1 and the United Nations (UN) and the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights have recognized them as such.

DECLARATION OF THE PEOPLE'S MOVEMENTS - MUMBAI 2004                                                 We, the people's movements representing workers, peasants and agricultural workers, women, Dalits and Adivasis, indigenous peoples, fisher peoples, urban poor, the physically and mentally handicapped and other sectors of the poor and oppressed, have again come together in Mumbai from 16-20 January 2004 for the People's Movements Encounters Part II.

THE INTERNATIONAL CANCUN DECLARATION OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES                                 5th WTO Ministerial Conference - Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico, 12 September 2003 - We, the international representatives of Indigenous Peoples gathered here during the 5th WTO Ministerial Conference in Cancun, Mexico from 10-14 September 2003 wish to extend our thanks to the Indigenous Peoples of Mexico, particularly the Mayan Indigenous Peoples of Quintana Roo, for welcoming us.

INDIGENOUS PEOPLES KYOTO WATER DECLARATION                                                              Third World Water Forum, Kyoto, Japan, March 2003

DATA COLLECTION AND DISAGGREGATION FOR INDIGENOUS PEOPLES                                  - UNITED NATIONS - Economic and Social Council - Distr. GENERAL - E/CN.19/2004/ - January 2004 - PERMANENT FORUM ON INDIGENOUS ISSUES - Workshop on Data Collection and Disaggregation for Indigenous Peoples - New York,19 – 21 January 2004

UNITED NATIONS - COMMISION ON HUMAN RIGHTS                                                                  - PREVENTION OF DISCRIMINATION AND PROTECTION OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES - 8 August 2002 - E/CN.4/Sub.2/2002/24 - ( PDF )

UNITED NATIONS - Economic and Social Council                                                                       - Distr. GENERAL - E/CN.4/Sub.2/AC.4/2002/6 - 8  May 2002 - COMMISION ON HUMAN RIGHTS - Voluntary Fund for Indigenous Populations - Note by Secretariat - ( PDF )

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF PEOPLES                                                         Whereas the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (jointly referred to as the International Bill of Human Rights) are universal and should be universally respected and implemented ...

Declaration of the African NGO Forum                                                                                Dakar (Senegal), 20th – 21st January 2001 - We, African NGOs, as well as African and other international civil society organizations, meeting in Dakar during the period (20th and 21st January 2001) for the preparation of the World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, xenophobia and Related Intolerance, to be held in South Africa in accordance with UN General Assembly Resolution 52/111 ...

International Alliance Charter                                                                                                     (Established Penang, Malaysia, 15 Feb 1992) - (Revised Nairobi, Kenya, 22 Nov 2002) Article 1. - We, the indigenous and tribal peoples of the tropical-forests, present this charter as a response to hundreds of years of continual encroachment and colonisation of our territories and the undermining of our lives, livelihoods and cultures caused by the destruction of the forests that our survival depends on. ...

Convention concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries (ILO No. 169), 72 ILO Official Bull. 59, entered into force Sept. 5, 1991  The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation, Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body of the International Labour Office, and having met in its seventy-sixth session on 7 June 1989, and Noting the international standards contained in the Indigenous and Tribal Populations Convention and Recommendation, 1957...

Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property - 17 Nov 70  Entry in force: 24 April 1972. - The General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, meeting in Paris from 12 October to 14 November 1970, at its sixteenth session...

PROTECTION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN TIME OF WAR AND ITS AFTERMATH                        by JAMES A. R. NAFZIGER - James Nafziger is the Thomas B. Stoel Professor of Law and Director of International Programs, Willamette University College of Law. He chairs the Committee on Cultural Heritage Law of the International Law Association (ILA) and serves as President of the ILA's American Branch. He is also a member of IFAR's Law Advisory Council.

Indigenous Peoples’ Declaration     PDF                                                                                     Indigenous Preparatory Meeting - 16-17 JUNE, 2002 - International Association Centre- Brussels, Belgium

Indigenous peoples' rights and development                                                                             This conclusion of the Carter Land Commission6 (1932-8) gives a picture of what the Ogiek have undergone over the years. The Commission recommended that the Ogiek be allocated land near communities with whom they had affinity, to enable assimilation. However, the Ogiek wanted development on their own terms. According to Kaliasoi Chesimet, an Ogiek elder in Tinet: 'The newcomers came and … cut down the forest for tea and flower farms… the Ogiek should be allowed to elect their own leaders and choose their own way of life on their land.'

AFRICAN 'INDIGENOUS PEOPLES' SEARCHING FOR A FUTURE                                                  Archive 1993 - 'Indigenous Peoples' from all corners of the African continent have met for the first time to take stock of their situation and organise for their future.

ABORIGINAL LAND RIGHTS - looking over the fence to Australia                                               The Indigenous spending drip - Land rights - the new debate we had to have - Crikey Daily - Tuesday, 12 April - Political correspondent Christian Kerr writes: “Indigenous communities have suffered from misplaced idealism,” Jenness Warren, a workplace English language and literacy tutor for the Laynhapuy Homeland Association Inc in the Northern Territory, wrote in a Financial Review (see below).

Forest Dwellers - issues                                                                                                         July 2008 - Forest Dwellers Presentation to the PMF on the strategic issues of the Forests of Kenya - - Many Kenyan indigenous peoples and rural communities especially forest dwellers, have experienced discrimination and rights violations through national development policy incoherence. The incoherence has led to policies that have undermined traditional livelihoods hence aggravating poverty.

WHO OWNS THE LAND? - BLOOD AND SOIL ISSUES IN THE KENYAN RIFT VALLEY Wednesday June 25, 2008 - The passion with which millions of citizens valued their presidential vote in the stolen 2007 presidential elections can be reflected in scenes of the bloody post-election clashes today that engulfed Rift Valley, Nyanza, Coast, Nairobi, Western and to a less extent in other parts of the country. Nakuru was the latest epicentre of inter ethnic murders. The violent reactions to rigged elections may reflect the pain of deep and historically rooted injustices some of which pre-date Kenya’s independence in 1963.

Indigenous issues, Special rapporteur - Kenya                                                                           Thematic Reports - Mechanisms of the Commission on Human Rights

What ails Kenya's policy on wildlife?                                                                                         Policy Insight (October, 1998 - Vol. 1 No. 2) ACTS Policy Insights series deals with topical issues concerning climate change, biodiversity, governance and other aspects of the environment as they emerge. Insights is an occasional publication, and the opinions expressed in it belong to the authors.

Land Rights Movements      PDF                                                                                                 Professor Daniel W. Bromley - University of Wisconsin-Madison --- Indigenous peoples in territories subjected to European conquest dating from the late 15th century onward have managed to focus national and international attention on their subjugation and dispossession. These various movements, primarily concentrated in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South America, and the United States, began in different places at different times over the past several decades.

HUNTER-GATHERER STUDIES: THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT  PDF                                        Anthropological and behavioral ecological studies of living hunter-gatherers have .ourished since the 1960’s. Researchers have developed and followed a variety of paradigms, each with its own assumptions and objectives, based on the behavior of huntergatherer communities. I argue here that in order to evaluate the validity of the use of a speci.c hunter-gatherer group for particular paradigmatic purposes, details of the historical and social context of the group are needed. The use of an inappropriate group, as determined by its context, can call into question the conclusions of a study.

The Dorobo Peoples of Kenya and Tanzania                                                                              A people profile by Orville Boyd Jenkins - August 1996 - The "Dorobo" are not one tribe.  Rather, the term Dorobo referred to the original forest-dwelling hunters in the Rift Valley of what is now Kenya and Tanzania.  These peoples live in scattered groups in the plains of the Rift Valley and the forests of the neighboring escarpments.

A Challenge to Conservationists   PDF                                                                                        Excerpted from the November/December 2004 WORLDWATCH magazine - Copyright 2004 Worldwatch Institute -

A Challenge to Conservationists: Phase II   PDF                                                                         FROM READERS - Excerpted from the January/February 2005 WORLD WATCH magazine - Copyright 2004 Worldwatch Institute - 

Colonisation is going on !                                                                                                           (e.g. right now in the heart of Africa - from the Congo Basin where the anglo-american and neo-french interests are at stake down to the San's Kalahari lands, where DeBeers deals diamonds with the ruling elite of Botswana !)

Is primitivism realistic? An anarchist reply to John Zerzan and others                                       (December 1, 2005) A reply to primitivist critiques of 'Civilisation, Primitivism and Anarchism' - - One of the major confusions in the anarchist movement in the USA and parts of Europe arises out of primitivism and its claim to be part of the anarchist movement. But primitivism is not a realistic strategy for social revolution and it opposes the basic purpose of anarchism - the creation of a free mass society. Primitivists have attempted to reply to these criticisms but these replies are easily exposed as more to do with faith then reality.

Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean                                                        Book Review - The Western Journal of Black Studies - Although the question of race has been an important sociological issue ever since the development of anthropology as a study of different human groups, contemporary philosophy has had relatively little to say about the topic. Interestingly enough though, three of the luminaries of Western philosophy did write about race as if those human groups that distinguished themselves both geographically and phenotypically constituted natural kinds in terms of temperament and intellect.

THE REAL STORY OF THANKSGIVING                                                                                         Most of us associate the holiday with happy Pilgrims and Indians sitting down to a big feast. And that did happen - once. - The story began in 1614 when a band of English explorers sailed home to England with a ship full of Patuxet Indians bound for slavery.

Fight for Freedom                                                                                                          SPECIAL REPORT Part 1 ; Part 2 ; Part 3

Careful decentralization of power over environment promotes democracy, development in Africa - CAPE TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA, March 26, 2001 -- The World Resources Institute (WRI) today urged African countries to strategically decentralize control over their natural resources as a means of strengthening democracy and protecting the environment. "Decentralization in Africa is very promising but as it is currently implemented, it will not encourage democracy, or deliver greater efficiency, equity and environmental protection," warned Dr. Jesse Ribot of the World Resources Institute (WRI). The WRI researcher was in Capetown today addressing a United Nations meeting on decentralizing local governance in Africa.


"WE WILL KEEP THE PAST NOT BEHIND US BUT IN FRONT OF US"                                           MANILA DECLARATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONFLICT RESOLUTION, PEACE BUILDING, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INDIGENOUS PEOPLES - Organized and convened by Tebtebba Foundation (Indigenous Peoples' International Centre For Policy Research and Education) in Metro Manila, Philippines on December 6 - 8, 2000   ( WORD.doc )

Joint Submission by Indigenous organizations to WGIP 2004     PDF                                         OFFICE OF THE HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS - Joint Submission by the following Indigenous organizations in Consultative Status with ECOSOC: Grand Council of the Crees (Eeyou Istchee), Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC), International Organization of Indigenous Resource Development (IOIRD), Coordinadora de las Organizaciones Indígenas de la Cuenca Amazónica (COICA), National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Legal Services Secretariat (NAILSS), Innu Council of Nitassinan, and Foundation for Aboriginal and Islander Research Action (FAIRA).

Bibliography of Foraging Peoples                                                                                              by Robert Lawless                                                                              please go to:

Hunter-Gatherer Bibliography                                                                                                     This bibliography was last up-dated on June 16, 1997

RESEARCHING INDIGENOUS PEOPLES RIGHTS UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW                          ( open as fullsite link ! - Copyright © 1992-2003, Steven C. Perkins. All rights reserved. ) This is a revision of a document prepared for presentation at the 1992 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Law Libraries. It may be reproduced for non-profit educational use if this notice appears on the reproduction. - Alternative weblink :   !

Tribe or Nation?               (PDF)                                                                                                  Nation-Building and Public Goods in Kenya versus Tanzania

African History and Environmental History                                                                                  William Beinart, St Antony's College, University of Oxford - Human beings are, before anything else, biological entities as Crosby reminds us. Their interaction with other species and with the natural environment, and their appropriation of the natural resources without which life is impossible, must be a central element in history. Significant sorties have been made over this terrain in a variety of historical writing, and more so in other disciplines. With respect to Africa, environmental issues have been a perennial concern for historical and physical geographers, anthropologists, archaeologists and medical scientists.

MARENA RESEARCH PROJECT - Working Paper no.4  PDF                                                        Inter Institutional Alliances and Conflicts in Natural Resource Management - Preliminary Research Findings from Borana, Oromia Region, Ethiopia - Elisabeth Watson, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge

UNRESOLVED HUMAN/WILDLIFE CONFLICT IN KENYA                                                               - THE SOURCE OF MISERY AND POVERTY ( by GODFREY M. KIMEGA / ECOFILES - 16. Sept. 2003 ) Peasant farmers, cattle herdsmen and landowners in Kenya have suffered heavy losses thanks to wildlife conservation policies aimed chiefly at appeasing the international donor community.

At The Hand Of Man - The White Man's Game                                                                            Prince Bernhard and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) - To attract donors, large and small, as well as media attention, Nicholson, Scott and the founding fathers of WWF wanted the royal family to lend their name. They approached Prince Philip to be president. Philip was an avid outdoorsman and hunter-in January 1961 he had bagged a Bengal tiger in India-and he and Queen Elizabeth had been to Kenya, on a safari best remembered because King George VI died while they were watching wild animals and Princess Elizabeth had become Queen. Scott sent Philip a draft of the proposed charter. Philip read it carefully, replying that one provision was "unctuous," and another "to wordy."....

WE DO NOT WANT TO BECOME AND END LIKE ISHI                                                                   Ishi was the last surviving member of the Yahi tribe. He was born about 1862. The Yahi were related to the Yana Indians who once lived in northern California of todays USA.

World Wide Fraud - Pandering to the Demands of Industry                                                        All around the world, as you read this, children of other cultures are being kidnapped and forced into schools against their will and that of their tribes. People from Indonesia to Zaire are being forcibly removed from their ancestral homelands into shoddy shanty towns with poor sanitation and bad food. These people want to stay in their homelands, living as they always have; with no leaders and no civilisation; hunting and gathering.

Cui Bono ? or The Policy of Segregation                                                                                    subtitle: FENCES KILL SENSES, RESPONSIBILITY AND RESPECT - a radio broadcast as community theatre in one act -

Mau Maus of the Mind: Making Mau Mau and Remaking Kenya

John Lonsdale - The Journal of African History, Vol. 31, No. 3 (1990), pp. 393-421 - This article consists of 29 page(s).

Abstract - This article explores the imaginative meanings of Mau Mau which white and black protagonists invented out of their fearful ambitions for the future of Kenya. Within the general assumptions of white superiority and the need to destroy Mau Mau savagery, four mutually incompatible European myths can be picked out. Conservatives argued that Mau Mau revealed the latent terror-laden primitivism in all Africans, the Kikuyu especially. This reversion had been stimulated by the dangerous freedoms offered by too liberal a colonialism in the post-war world. The answer must be an unapologetic reimposition of white power. Liberals blamed Mau Mau on the bewildering psychological effects of rapid social change and the collapse of orderly tribal values. Africans must be brought more decisively through the period of transition from tribal conformity to competitive society, to play a full part in a multi-racial future dominated by western culture; this would entail radical economic reforms. Christian fundamentalists saw Mau Mau as collective sin, to be overcome by individual confession and conversion. More has been read into their rehabilitating mission in the detention camps than is warranted, since they had no theology of power. The whites with decisive power were the British military. They saw the emergency as a political war which needed political solutions, for which repression, social improvement and spiritual revival were no substitute. They, and the 'hard-core' Mau Mau detainees at Hola camp who thought like them, cleared the way for the peace. This was won not by any of the white constructions of the rising but by Kenyatta's Kikuyu political thought, which inspired yet criminalised Mau Mau.

Interrogating Rock Art Interpretation: A Theoretical Perspective                              (22.08.2008) By Job Amupanda - Generally rock art can be defined as figures pecked or painted on rocks. It can be categorised in two ways in terms of their description, namely pictographs and petroglyphs. Pictographs entails design painted on stone surface while pictoglyphs is the design pecked or incised on stone surface.



Le triste cas des Ogiek                                                                                                 (dimanche 27 mai 2007) Ecrit par Julio - A l’heure où les mots Intégration et Unité nationale sont à la mode, qu’en est-il dans une société anonyme aux yeux des Européens : le paisible Kenya et sa mosaïque multiethnique. La réalité n’est pas dans les guides touristiques...

PDF`s about the Ogieks in french language:   (PDF)

Espoir pour les Ogiek du Kenya (8 Kb - Ik n° 38 - 2000/12 - Hervé Valentin)

Défense des terres ancestrales des Ogiek du Kenya (16 Kb - Ik n° 36 - 2000/06 - Hervé Valentin)

Les Ogiek menacés d'expulsion (34 Kb - Ik n° 34 - 1999/12 - Hervé Valentin)